HEALTH AND HYGIENE

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                                      who is healthier? how can you say ? what happens when one is not felling well ?
the body feels tired and the person does not look cheerful . a healthy persons is physical  fit and mentally  sound . 
in fact, scientists at who ( world health organisation ) define health as a state of complete physical , mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease 
BASIC CONDITION OF GOOD HEALTH
health is influenced by a numbers of factors , some within the individual lives. some basic conditions necessary for Good health are:

FOOD :
Food is a basic necessity. it contain substances which perform important function in our body . without food , it will become difficult for us to live . the food that we eat contains seven main components .

• Carbohydrates

• Proteins

•minerals

•Fats

•Vitamins

•Water and Roughage

let us undertake exciting journey to see which component is present in which food item.

CARBOHYDRATES

carbohydrates are rich in sugar and starches. they provide us energy .
BRED,RICE,FRUITS,POTATOES,CONTAIN STARCH. fruit juices, chocolates and honey contain sugar chocolates can be had once in a while , not on a daily basis they spoil our teeth if consumed regularly.

FATS

like carbohydrates , fats also provide energy to the body . the extra carbohydrates consumed by the body gets converted in to fat which is then stored in the body.
intake off to much fat results in a person becoming obese (very fat) this condition is extremely harmful. obese person are more likely to suffer from diabetes and heart diseases. junk food such as pizzas,burgers,colas,franc fries are rich in fats and must be avoided.

PROTEINS

protein help to make new cells. new cells help as to grow better and stronger our body requires protein for growth and repairing old cells.
most of the proteins are found in animal products . however, some plant products such as pulses,soya beans, peas, beans, and fruits are also rich sources of protein.

VITAMINS
vitamins are required by the body in very small . amount vitamins help to fight the disease germs which enter our body

WATER -> water is a very important component off our food . we would not survive more then a few days with a total lack of water  .Approximately two third of our body is water. it plays a part in many chemical reactions that take place in the body.

Roughage
the fibre forms are important part of the diet , although it is indigestible. it helps our body to get rid of the waste easily and also keeps the muscles of the intestines in good working order. found in whole cereals , potatoes ,fruits and vegetables.

minerals-> just like vitamins , minerals are also required in very small amount . they strengthen bones and help in the growth replacement and repair process.

EGG Yolk, meat,milk,butter,green vegetable fruit and pulses are also rich in minerals.

Diet
a diet is the food we eat . the importance  of a well balance diet for good health and proper development is now generally recognized  by all.

our diet must contain the correct proportion of the different components of food we just studied about.

a person who has only rice without any pulses or fruits and vegetables in his diet is sure to fall sick. can tell why?

a diet that contains sufficient amount of different  components of food required for the healthy functioning of the body is called a balance diet.

A balance diet is not the same for everyone. children and young people need more proteins and carbohydrates than old people . people who do a lot physical work like labourers ,sportsperson need a lot of energy given foods.

HOW TO FOOD DIGESTED

food is taken into our body through the mouth the different taste buds on the tongue help us to taste the food first. the saliva present in our mouth then breaks down the starch of the food into sugar. you can actually taste this change as you chew a piece of chapatti .it will slowly being to test sweet. the food then passes through the food pipe (oesophagus) and reaches our stomach . the food remains in the stomach for a few minutes to hours and goes into the small intestine .this is where most of the digestion takes place. the undigested food continues on to the large intestine where water is taken out before moving to the last part of the intestine the rectum finally the undigested food passes out of the body as faeces through the anus.
the food we take in is ultimately  broken down to glucose in the body glucose in the simple sugar energy to the body is provided by the sugar (glucose) it is for the reason that people who are very sick are given glucose . glucose mixes with the blood quickly and provided instant energy .

REPAIRING FOOD FOR A HEALTHY DIET

• food such as fruits and vegetables which are usually consumed raw must be washed throughly in clean running water.

most foods undergo considerable change during cooking ,cooking is done in one of the three forms boiling,frying or roasting and baking to destroy harmful organisms and to soften and added flavor to food .

• the main disadvantage of cooking is that there is loss of mineral salts and vitamins. so the practice of using small quantities of water and using the water for gravy is usually recommended .

EXERCISE

exercise and play are essential for remaining healthy . have you hard of the proverb . all work and no play, makes jack a dully boy ? regular exercise improves blood circulation and imparts a fresh glow to your face .

-> exercise tones and strengthens your muscles .

->while exercising you also brea

the faster and deeper . this is good for your lungs.

->playing outdoors games such as football ,cricket ,badminton, are very good forms of exercise .

REST AND SLEEP

-> rest and sleep help your body to refresh itself .
->during sleep the body system also rest .

->while resting your body grows and repairs where and tear.
->the sleep requirement varies for different age groups. for a.g newborn babies and infants sleep most of the day . adult need 6-8 hour of uninterrupted sleep .

-> in order to benefit from rest and sleep , it is advisable to sleep at the same time every night and get up at the same time every morning.

POSTURE
->correct posture (body position ) is important for the overall functioning of the body .
-> while sitting and standing your back must be straight the head must be help up high.
-> while reading care must be taken to see that you sit directly under a light sources .
-> incorrect posture over a long period of time may lead to a hunch back and sagging shoulders . get into the habit of correct posture from childhood itself.

PERSONAL HYGIENE

we must – clean our body with soap and water  everyday. bathing removes the sweets and germs from our body and makes as feel fresh.

EYES -> are the window to the world they must be looked after very well. washing the eyes regularly with cold water  maintains their freshness. if a foreign particle enters the eye. it must be removed not by various rubbing but by washing with plenty of water .

WE MUST -> wash our hand thoroughly with soap and water after visiting the toilet. every time we touch foreign objects germs are transfered . these gems enter our body an cause diseases . this is why it is essential to wash our hend when we come back to our homes.
also look after our ears . after bathing we must wipe our ears with a clean towel care must be taken not to insert sharp object into the ears as this can damage the ear drums.

TEETH -> must be brushed at least twice a day preferably after meals brushing removes the food particles and germs trapped between the teeth candies and chocolates must not be eaten regularly as they lead to cavities.

Combing -> combing hair twice o thrice a day keeps its free from getting entangled . oiling of the roots twice a week make the hair long,black and shiny.

finger  nails and toe nails must be trimmed regularly . long nails are breeding ground of disease causing germs .

KEEP YOUR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEAN

you cannot remain healthy just be keeping yourself clean . it is important to also keep your surroundings clean. garbage must be thrown in well covered dustbins . open garbage attracts flies and other disease causing organisms .
similarly, water must not be allowed to accumulate . stagnant water can become the breeding ground for mosquitoes which cause dengue and malaria .

Diseases
A person is said to be healthy when one is happy . energetic and not suffering from any discomfort or disability . A disease is characterized by a set of specific symptoms and signs. it may be caused through an infection or injury or may be inborn .they may also be caused due to lake of any component of food in our diet.

Diseases are broadly classified into two types ,

1: communicable or infectious diseases

2: non communicable or non infectious diseases.

communicable or infectious diseases:
1: diseases which can spread from one person to another through direct contact with the diseased person or through insect bites are called communicable diseased .
measles , common cold cough typhoid , tuberculosis cholera ,chicken pox are some diseases which speared from an infected person to a healthy one.

2: non communicable or non – infectious diseases:
diseases which d not speared from one person to another are called non – communicable diseases.
(i) some disorder may be present at birth like heart diseases.
(ii) some diseases are linked to lack of a certain component in our food  like e.g lack of iron in our diet leads to anaemia,
(iii) some diseases like asthma and other allergies are caused by pollen grains and air pollution .
(iv) bad habits like overeating and lack of exercise may lead to a condition called obesity . in obesity is the person becomes very fat and inactive . if not treated on time it may lead to heart diseases and even death.

FOOD PRESERVATION
if we store food for  long time it will start losing its colour and taste . germs also start growing in it marketing it unfit for consumption
so food needs to be preserved .there are various way of preserving food some of them are:
(i) By freezing food such as meat, peas,certain ,vegetables . germs cannot grow in low temperatures.

(ii) By sealing in tins and cans.  without air germs cannot grow sealed chips packets remain fresh and can be eaten anytime.

(iii) By adding sugar salt and oil as preservatives .

(iv) By removing watet from the food the process is called dehydration . germs need moisture to grow without water germs cannot grow and spoil the food.

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