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SAFETY AND FIRST AID:- an accident always occurs by accident. Accident can happen anytime without a warning . they can occur n the road, in the house,in the school, on the playground and even in your own room .
we must follow certain safety guidelines to avoid accidents But in case an accident does occur, we must be alert and conscious to help ourselves and also other people around us who might have been affected by the disaster. in this chapter we will study about the safety measures to be taken while on the road, in the house and how to protect oneself from fire.
in the above pictures, there are some things which are definitely wrong . can you say which action are incorrect ?
who are the people following the safety rules? which people are likely to meet with an accident?Why?
everyday we read in newspaper of people dying in road accident most accidents occur because of the rash driving of drivers. increase in the number of vehicles has only added to the problem .
some things which need to kept in mind regarding safety on the road are: • Traffic light installed at major crossing must always be obeyed. 
•drivers should stick to there lanes while driving . overtaking another vehicle must be done from the right side.
• pedestrians must always use the footpath. it is safer to cross the road using a zebra crossing. one must take sure that the traffic has stop before crossing the road. 
• many busy streets have a provision of a SUBWAY . a subway is an underground passage going beneath the road. it connect two places on opposite edges of a road . it is one of the safety way of crossing a road.

safety Habits at home : when in the kitchen . where cotton clothes .never were ill – fitting synthetic clothes which can catch fire .if you smell gas in the kitchen immediately open the doors and windows . ring up the gas agency to send there expert to detect the leakage.

after playing always make it a point to clean up the mess on the floor . do not keep anything on the ground over which a person may fall and hurt himself.

keep medicines out of reach of young children . keep them in neatly labelled bottles in a self where an alder can take them out .

Do not leave soapy water on the bathroom floor someone may slip and get hurt.

loose electronic wires must not be hanging around in the house. all wires must be properly insulated.


FIRES CAUSED By Electricity .

Fire  caused by cooking stoves or LPG leakage .
fires caused by throwing burning matches or cigarettes.

Methods of Putting of fire 
Electrical fire must never  be put out using water. electricity travels quickly through water . if a person comes in contact with this water he will get an electric shock which can be fatal. a fire caused by electricity is best put of by using sand or mud or a fire extinguisher .

Fire caused from a kerosene stove is always put off by using sand or a fire extinguisher.  water is not used to put off fire because kerosene oil is lighter then water. it will flot on water and continue  to burn.

LPG gas has no smell of it own . a chemical added to it help us to know when gas is leaking . Do not light the stoves or matches if you smell gas in the room also do not switch on or switch off any electric device . a tiny spark from the switch can cause the gas which has spread into the room to burn.

if the clothes of a person catches fire the person must be made to roll on the ground  this cuts of the supply of air to the fire the person  may also be wrapped in a blanket. overcoat or rug to cut off air supply the person must never run in case the fire spreads to the building the nearest fire station must be informed immediately . fire fighters put off fires by using hose – pipes.


the term first aid implies to the first help given to an injured person before the arrival to the doctor .
administering first aid to victims of burn or other accident require presence of mind.


one can get burnt when in accidental contact with hot objects, steam ,fire crackers electric point and sometimes even some chemical substances such as acids.

•IN case of minor burns – the effected skin develops a reddish colour .
the burnt area should be kept in cold water . an antiseptic cream must be applied locally to prevent infection .  a home made paste of backing soda and water also impart considerable relief .

• in case of severe burns – blisters are formed the blisters must never be pricked with a pin or any other sharp object it may lead to infection instead , a wet compress of a cloth dipped in a solution of baking soda can be applied on the burnt area .

the patient must be rushed immediately to a doctor  after first aid is administered .

IF IT is a chemical burn: the burnt area must be washed with lots of water to rinse away the chemical and the victim must then be taken to a doctor immediately .

in case the fire is due a short circuit the mains should be switched  off.


a fractures is a break or a creak in the bone. a sprain means the tissues around a joint are damaged . sprains cause swelling and discolouration of the skin . they can be very painful. if it is a sprain . the person will be able to move the effect area though there will be pain

-> cold packs or ice cubes must be applied to the injured  joint.

->an ointment like lodex can be applied not massage .

->the joint must not be moved about. instead it must be supported with a crepe bandage, resting the injured joint will make it heal faster.

if it is a fracture ,the person will be in intense pain . for example if the fracture is an the leg he or she will not be able to move the leg.

->Do not try to move the injured part .
->Easily available things like sheets of newspapers , cardboard books, etc… can be placed below the injured bone to act as a  splint . a splint prevents further dislocation of the broken bone.
->  a sling prevents unnecessary movement of the fractured arm.
 ->an X-ray of the fractured part will show the extent of injury . the doctor will then decide the course of treatment.

DO YOU KNOW ? mental alertness, physical agility and timely first aid can prevent many accident from becoming fatal.

-> small wounds (cuts and scratches )
• A wound is caused by a cut or any part of the body . wounds may either be superficial or deep . no wound however minor should be neglected.

• a small wound should be cleaned with soap and water immediately and then with an antiseptic solution such as savlon and dettole.

• if there bleending from the wound , ice will stop or minimize the flow or blood.

• remember an open wound is prone to infection from germs and dirt therefore it is imperative that it is washed soon and ab ointment applied .

• a deep wounds must also be cleaned first with cotton dipped in an antiseptic solution.

• Bleeding must stopped by tying a bandage tightly above the wounds this will slow down the flow of blood from the heart.

• another way to reduce the bleeding is to apply a thick pad of cotton over the wound and press it with the thumb and finger , the victim must be taken to a doctor .

there are many stray animals loitering about on the road . they must be left alone running after them throwing stones or teasing them will only annoy them and force them to bite us, immediate first aid is necessary .

the wound must be washed with plenty of soap and water to removes the germs from the effected are.

For a person bitten by a snake immediate treatment is a must . otherwise it may be too late and the poison may spread throughout the body , leading to death.

the bites of dogs, cats, bats and wolves can lead to a dangerous disease called rabies.
these days anti – rabies injection are available they are very painful if given on time a person may be saved from rabies , if left untreated the person may even die ….

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